These fees vary from one 여우 알바 auctioneer to the next, depending on the type of sale, typically ranging between 15% to 25% of the hammer price (excluding taxes). In addition to a winning bid on an item in the auction, known as the hammer price, the auction houses also charge buyers an additional fee known as a buyers premium, calculated as a percentage of the hammer price. While auction houses are fairly silent on what fees they charge sellers, they will tout what a buyers premium will be.
Auctioneers are, after all, in the business of fees (and Christies New Yorks so-calledbuyer premiumranges from around 13% to 30% of the winning bid). Auction houses already charge sellers fees, fees paid to an auction house by a consignor that goes toward research, appraisal, and advertising for an art work.
Auction houses take a cut from sales, meaning buyers pay more for the artwork they buy than sellers get back, and the auction house takes the difference. Auction housesreserve the right to pursue legal action against buyers who do not pay on items for which they have placed a bid, but are not required to hire debt collectors or pursue lawsuits on a consignors behalf.
Despite efforts in the State of New York to enact legislation that would improve transparency of auction houses practices, the rules of the city permit auctioneers to conduct “mock” bids, starting auctions at prices below reserve prices and placing bids on a sellers behalf to a price above a confidential reserve. In New York, for instance, the existence (but not price) of a reserve price is required to be disclosed before an auction. For example, the reserve price is a price at which an auction house will not sell any given consigned property, a price that is agreed to before the sale between the sellers or consignors of a work and the auction house.
In practice, sellers will establish a hidden reserve price, and then certain items go unsold as bidding does not meet that (sellers) reserve price. If a reserve price is unenforceable, and having a reserve price causes fewer bidding participants in an auction, prices may fall. This analysis would complete if the number of buyers and sellers at an auction were fixed, and if sellers did not establish reserve prices.
If, for instance, the reserve price for the second highest bidder was $11,365,000 (comprising the $10-million price and a $1,365,000 auction-house premium), this sum does not change as the buyers premium increases. For example, if Bob is the winning bidder for a table and chair set he has placed his $100 down on, and the buyers premium is 10% for this particular auction, Bob would effectively be paying $110 for the piece, in addition to any other fees charged by the auction house, such as sales taxes. In addition to the bid price, buyers in Christies and Sothebys auctions pay a further premium of between 12 and 25 %, depending on the hammer price (the highest percentage is for items under $200,000, the lowest amount is for items over $3 million), but they and other auctioneers also charge sellers fees, depending on the prices realized at a sale.
While larger auction houses (such as Sothebys) will also charge as much as 25% for items, most smaller auction houses charge between 1%-15%. Over the years, auction houses worldwide have followed Sothebys and Christies example, and started charging buyers fixed, automatic fees.
The modern buyers premium was introduced by Sothebys and Christies in 1975; then, both houses charged 10%. The buyers premium was a feature in Roman auctions in the time of Augustus, where buyers were required to pay a tax of one percent upon purchase.
One final (potential) fee auction houses frequently included in their contracts was called the repudiation, or clawback, clause, referring to a sellers obligation to refund any money made on the sale should the threat arise of the buyer alleging the item sold is unauthentic, or a valid title has not been passed. Depending on how the third-party collateral agreement is structured, the auction house may offer some incentives to attract prospective outside collateral, such as a percentage of the profit from a successful bidding increment, as well as the buyers premium (also known as the finance charge).
The seller may feel comfortable knowing the piece will sell regardless of the outcome of the auction, and if the piece sold for more than the guaranteed price, the seller may benefit from a further percentage of the upside (which is the hammer price less the guaranteed price, according to the terms of the consignment agreement). The price reached at the time of the auctioneers gavel drop–the hammer price–is not the actual price paid for the art.
Rago Arts & Auction Center in Lambertville, New Jersey, charges sellers anywhere from five to 25 percent (the smaller amounts on high-priced lots), and Eldreds Auctioneers in Cape Cod charges sellers a flat 20 percent fee, though will take a smaller fee if a lot sells for less than $100. Society6 even lets you set up a custom royalty deal on prints and stretched canvases, while setting fees on the other items it sells. For an extra charge, Artfinders even set you up with art consultants, who can help market your art to the right collectors and help you price it.
That means real-time transmission of the auctioneers words and price increases, and sharing details of potential competitors (revealing the identities of other telephone bidders, though, is a big no-no, stresses Rother).